International Nanotechnology Conference & Expo
April 4-6, 2016   Baltimore, USA
Day 2 : 04:05:2016

Keynote Forum

Mark A DeCoster

Louisiana Tech University, USA
Keynote:
Novel synthesis and characterization of scalable metallic nano-biocomposites for interaction with cells

Biography :

Dr. DeCoster is the James E. Wyche III endowed Associate Professor in Biomedical Engineering at Louisiana Tech University in Ruston, Louisiana and is a member of the Institute for Micromanufacturing there.  He received his Ph.D. in Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics from the Medical College of Virginia/ Virginia Commonwealth University, and his B.S. in Biology from the College of William and Mary.  His research interests include combining nanotechnology with cell biology to understand the brain and disease states such as cancer.  In 2010 Dr. DeCoster founded Nanogaia, a startup company developing novel nano-biological hybrid materials and interfaces for cells in 2D and 3D environments.  Dr. DeCoster has published over 65 peer-reviewed papers with over 1,950 citations of this work.  He has served extensively as a reviewer for the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation, and his lab group is currently funded by multiple federal and state grant awards. 

Abstract :

We have recently reported the novel synthesis of a scalable nano-biocomposite containing copper and the amino acid dimer cystine.  The biocomposites were synthesized at physiological temperature (37 degrees Celsius) and in a liquid medium, with typical synthesis time of 3-7 hours.  Two copper sources successfully resulted in biocomposites:  copper nanoparticles (CuNPs), and copper sulfate.  Both copper sources resulted in very high-aspect ratio structures (HARS), with diameters scaling from 20 nm to a few microns, and lengths scaling from hundreds of nanometers to hundreds of microns as determined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and white-light microscopy.  Synthesis using copper sulfate resulted in “cleaner” synthesis in that the copper sulfate went fully into solution, while the CuNPs often were not fully transformed during the synthesis.  Once synthesized, the HARS were remarkably stable, for at least a year in both liquid (water) and dried form.  Furthermore, they had very low agglomeration (clumping), which made transfer and concentration of the HARS by centrifugation much more feasible.  While length of the individual HARS could not be controlled during the synthesis, post-synthesis the average length could be decreased using sonication.  Furthermore, solutions at extreme pH values (both basic and acidic), were able to degrade the HARS post synthesis.  While starting CuNPs were very toxic to cells in vitro at 25-50 micrograms per ml, including to brain tumor cells, the CuNP- and copper sulfate-derived HARS were much less toxic on a per mass basis as determined by the MTT metabolic assay.  Additionally, we found that over time the copper containing HARS could be degraded in cell culture conditions, bound to phagocytic cells of the brain (microglia), and could be taken up by 3-dimensional (3D) cell spheroids.  Thus, these novel nano- and micro-biocomposites containing copper and cystine could provide a degradable platform for directing cell engineering including destruction of cancer cells.  Since these biocomposites are formed under physiological conditions and include the amino acid dimer cystine, they may be more amenable to functionalization and utilization in 2D and 3D cell systems for both short-term and long-term cell engineering. 

Keynote Forum

Pavel Lazarev

Capacitor Sciences Inc., USA
Keynote:
Metadielectric capacitors for energy storage

Biography :

Pavel Lazarev is the inventor of Capacitor Sciences’ high permittivity technology and founder of the Company. He also is the founder of Cryscade and inventor of the company’s Donor-Bridge-Acceptor technology. He received his Masters from Moscow State University, Ph.D. in Crystallography and Dr. of Science Degree in Biophysics from the Russian Academy of Science. Previously, Pavel founded Nanotechnology MDT (www.nt-mdt.com), Akvion (www.akvion.ru), Optiva Inc., Ribtan Inc. (www.ribtan.com) and Crysoptix KK, (www.crysoptix.com). Pavel was an editor of International Journals ‘Molecular Engineering’, ‘Nanobiology’ and ‘Molecular Materials’. Pavel has published several books, over 150 technical publications and over 200 inventions with emphasis on the R&D and production of functional crystalline films based upon coatable lyotropic liquid crystals.

Abstract :

Efficient energy storage is the key component in the development of various modern technologies. In the present time, the all-electric cars start to enter the vehicle market but they are still more expensive and less trustworthy than the usual ones. Electronic devices, which are omnipresent in modern society, are also heavily dependent on reliable energy storage modules. Moreover, renewable energy sources such as solar cells and wind turbines are sustainable and environmentally friendly, but their energy production is intermittent and the effective storage would make the energy available on demand. Available market for energy storage devices is expected to exceed $1000B. As the limitations of the electrochemical batteries are impossible to overcome, the right answer should arrive from the capacitor side. In the present time capacitors are cheap and have very high power density. To make them competitive with the batteries, their energy density should be increased.  

The energy density stored in the capacitor is proportional to the applied voltage squared with the proportionality coefficient determined by the permittivity of the material inside the capacitor. Correspondingly, large values of the energy density can be achieved by using composite polymer materials with the permittivity increasing with the voltage. This can be especially efficient at high operational voltages. In this talk we discuss an approach to use a specific class of polymers to develop capacitors having extremely high energy density. These polymers display interesting polarization dependencies on the electric field. It is possible to perform crafty molecular engineering to achieve necessary phenomenology. We believe that the proposed approach ushers a new generation of the energy storage devices providing the solutions to the many needs of the society.

Session 2 : Recent developments in Nanotechnology and Nanoscience & Micro and Nanoparticles

Chair

Alexander A. Spector

Johns Hopkins University, USA

Co-Chair

Tatsuo Hasegawa

The University of Tokyo, Japan

Session Introduction

Alexander A Spector

Johns Hopkins University, USA
Title: The role of mechanical strains in stem cell differentiation

Biography :

Prof. Alexander Spector graduated from Moscow State University and later received his Ph.D. and Dr. Sci. degrees from the Russian Academy of Sciences. Since 1994, he has been working at Johns Hopkins University where he is currently Research Professor in Biomedical Engineering and Mechanical Engineering. He is also affiliated with the Institute of NanoBiotechnology, Translational Tissue Engineering Center, and Center for Hearing and Balance at Johns Hopkins University. In 2010, Prof. Spector was elected as a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), and in 2015, he was appointed an Associate Editor of the Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing. His major research areas are cell/stem cell mechanics and biophysics, mechanotrasduction, biological membranes, and molecular motors.

Abstract :

The mechanical factors play important roles in stem cell fate. In particular, applied loading (strain) has a substantial effect on stem cell myogenesis as it has been shown in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) into smooth muscle cells. ASCs provide an easily accessible, abundant source for autologous cells and have a great potential to tissue engineering and cell therapies. We have recently shown that ASCs can be effectively differentiated into skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs) if cyclic strain is applied. However, the mechanism of the strain effect on ASC differentiation into SkMCs as well as the optimal regime of strain application is not clear. Here we present a modeling insight into ASC myogenesis. We describe this process as a transition through several typical stages characterized by expression of a particular combination of myogenic markers previously observed in our experiment. The cells proceed to the next stage via asymmetric division or direct differentiation. The problem is formulated as a system of ODEs whose coefficients are expressed in terms of cell division, self-renewal, death, and direct differentiation rates. In addition, we use a system of nonlinear conditions associated with cell interaction with its environment and a feedback factor due to a limit in cell density. We first adjust the model parameters by using two particular experimental conditions for zero and 10% applied strain. We compute to kinetics of ASC myogenesis in terms of the number of cells being in each stage and demonstrate the main effect of the applied strain on the process of ASC differentiation. We show that after the strain application the number of the original stem cells starts decreasing and the cells in the late stages become dominant, while, under the no-strain condition, the original stem cells keep increasing and become dominant over the cells in the late stages. Finally, we use the developed model and predict the kinetics of ASC myogenesis for conditions beyond the experiment, such as different strains and longer times. We found that there is a strain limit (about 2%) below which the process has a pattern similar to that under the static no-strain conditions. Above that level, cells follow the alternative pattern similar to that under the dynamic experimental conditions. The obtained modeling insight will help in a better understanding of stem cell myogenensis as well as in the design of new experiments to further illuminate this process. 

Lourdes G. Salamanca-Riba

University of Maryland, USA
Title: Incorporation of graphene and other carbon nanostructures in metals via electrocharging assisted process

Biography :

Lourdes Salamanca-Riba is a Professor in the Materials Science and Engineering Department at the University of Maryland. Her research is in the areas of nanomaterials, self-assembly in semiconductor nanostructures, hybrid photovoltaics, solid oxide fuel cells and carbon nanostructures in metals called covetics. Her research focus is on the synthesis and characterization of materials using transmission electron microscopy. She has a BS degree in Physics from the Universidad AutónomaMetropolitana in Mexico City and a PhD degree also in Physics from MIT.  She was a Senior Research Scientist at the GM Research Laboratory in Warren, MI prior to becoming a faculty member at the University of Maryland.  Professor Salamanca-Riba has over 140 publications and is a member of the Materials Research Society, American Physical Society and the Microscopy Society of America.

Abstract :

Carbon in the form of graphene sheets and graphene nanoribbons (GNR) was incorporated in 99.99% Ag, 99.99% Cu and Al 6061 and Al 7075 alloys by electrocharging assisted process.  This process consists of the application of a high DC current to a mixture of the liquid metal and particles of activated carbon.  The current is believed to produce ionization of the carbon particles followed by polymerization in such a way that graphene sheets and nanoribbonsform within the metal. The new materials, called covetics, are very stable as the carbon remains in the metal even after remelting and resolidification. The graphene structures bond to the metal atoms and develop epitaxial structures with the metal lattice upon crystallization.We have varied the current applied during the reaction and measured the voltage between the crucible and the electrode. The voltage across the sample fluctuates as an indication that the reaction is taking place and slowly decreases as the carbon distribution becomes more uniform.  Samples are compared for different currents and initial carbon content. We have used Raman scattering, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy for characterization of samples prepared with different current and for different carbon content. Raman scattering using 532 nm excitation laser shows that the graphitic regions have sp2 character with high intensity of the G and D peaks at ~1,580 and 1,354 cm-1 which are characteristic of graphitic structures having defects.  The graphitic structures form a network throughout the sample that is believed to enhance the properties of the material. The domain size of the graphene nanoribbons are in the range of 10-30 nm as measured by Raman, TEM, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Simulations from density functional theory predict bonding between carbon and silver (or Al) at vacancies and edges of the graphene-like ribbons.  First principles calculations of the dynamic matrix of Ag and Al covetics predict a phonon density of states with Raman active modes corresponding to bonding between C and Ag/Al and which agree with our Raman scattering results that show weak modes in the region of 500 to 1,000 cm-1.  Al 6061 and Al 7075 with 5% C show higherultimate tensile strength compared to the pure alloys. Cu covetic films with 4 wt% C show higher transmittance to light and higher resistance to oxidation than pure copper films.

  • Funded by DARPA/ARL Grant No. W911NF-13-1-0058, and ONR No N000141410042.

Tatsuo Hasegawa

The University of Tokyo, Japan
Title: Nanotechnologies for advanced printed electronics

Biography :

Tatsuo Hasegawa has completed his Doctor of Engineering degree from the University of Tokyo, Japan and was a research associate at the University of Tokyo, was an associate professor at Hokkaido University, and then was a senior research scientist at National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). Now he has been a professor at the Department of Applied Physics, the University of Tokyo since 2014, and also leads a research group at AIST.

Abstract :

Printed electronics aims to realize self-formation of electronic devices under ambient conditions via the printed microfluids that contain such as soluble organic electronic materials or dispersed metal nanoparticles. In this talk, we present our recent investigations for developing advanced printed electronics. The topics include; 1) development of self-organized layered organic semiconductors and of their novel printing method for fabricating high performance printed thin-film transistors, 2) development of printed organic ferroelectric capacitor that presents few volt switching operations, and 3) new printing principle via nanoparticle chemisorption for conductive silver patterning with submicron resolution. We discuss that the explorations are based on outcomes in various fields of materials and nanoscience such as molecular nanotechnology, supramolecular chemistry, solid state and soft matter physics.

Yasuhiro Yamada

Osaka University, Japan
Title: Current noise enhancement by quantum effects of a charge resolution limit

Biography :

Yasuhiro Yamadais a research fellow of the department of physics at Osaka University.He received the B. E. and M. E. degrees in applied physics from Osaka University in 2006 and 2008, respectively. He received the Ph.D. degree in physics from Kyoto University in 2011 for his work on the nonequilibrium interplay between the Kondo and the superconducting correlations in a quantum dot system. He joined the department of applied physics at the University of Tokyo as a research fellow in 2011. His current research interests include quantum correlation effects in nonequilibrium systems, quantum measurement effects, dissipation engineering, feedback control of quantum systems, dynamical phase transitions, and transient quantum dynamics in photovoltaics.

Abstract :

Current measurement is a useful tool to understand the intrinsic properties of nanoscale systems.In addition to the current average, the current noises have been extensively studied in past two decade. In particular, the nonequilibrium shot noise and the equilibriumJohnson-Nyquist noise are truly instrumental. They weresuccessively utilized for confirming the fractional charge of the excitation in fractional quantum Hall edge states, for measuring the Kondo correlationsin quantum dot systems,and for the thermometry.In contrast to the good agreement of theory and experiment, however, wealso observed the disagreement atvery low temperatures and low voltages in various nanoscale systems, i.e. unexpected anomalous noise enhancement.

Here we consider the puzzle byidentifying the properties of the potential noise source in the simple framework of intrinsic and extrinsic noise.The disagreement abruptly disappears with a slight increase in temperature or voltage, which apparently indicates that the anomalous enhancement is caused by an unknown intrinsic mechanism. On the other hand, the anomalous noisealso shows signs of being extrinsic;it appears in equilibrium, andseems to violate the Johnson-Nyquist relation that holds for the intrinsic mechanism. Accordingly, the anomalous noise shows thenature of intrinsic and extrinsicsources.

One possiblenoise source is the actual measurement of currentper se; in light of the inevitable presence of an extrinsic resolution limit, the intrinsic current is affected by the measurement in a quantum-mechanical manner, which can lead to the mixed nature.Here we theoretically study the influence of acharge resolution limit on the observed current distribution, using an extension of the full counting statistics. It is shown that the resolution limit gives rise to noise enhancement prominent only at low temperatures and low voltages. The relative error of the measured noise is universally scaled by a single parameter. The resolution effects are truly quantum-mechanical because it disappears in the classical limit where the Planck constant approaches the zero. Our findings also offer a qualitative explanation of the disagreement between experiment and ideal theory observed in the noise measurements.

Ahmed Bachar

CEMHTI - CNRS, France
Title: Silicate glasses including silver nanoparticles: Annealing conditions correlated to optical and structural properties

Biography :

Ahmed Bachar received a PhD in materials chemistry from the University of Valenciennes, France. He is currently a CNRS researcher at the “Extreme Conditions and Materials: High Temperature and Irradiation” (CEMHTI) laboratory, University of Orleans, France. His research focuses on glass materials, metallic nanoparticles, anameling of functionalized surface and ceramic. He published around 20 papers in international research journals and got many participations in conferences and workshops. 

Abstract :

Glasses containing noble metal nanoparticles have been extensively investigated in the past decades because of their excellent properties such as ultrafast optical response and large third-order non-linear susceptibility. Nonlinear optical materials, such as composites formed by metal nanoclusters in glass, are potentially important in the field of all optical switching technology. Many methods have been used to produce metallic (Au, Ag, Cu) nanoparticles, many of them describing chemical reduction techniques, some of them are concerned with formation of silver nanoparticles in matrices using ionic-exchange processes or laser beam, like soda-lime silicateglasses. In this work, we study the effects of network nature and the annealing conditions (temperature and atmosphere nature) on the coloration of silicate and borosilicate glasses doped with silver or gold oxide. Evolution of such structural glasses during annealing is studied by MAS NMR spectroscopy of 29Si, 11B and 23Na. The dispersed nanoparticles have been examined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The Optical Absorption Spectroscopy applied to colored glasses has given rise to the Surface Plasmon Resonance at around 420 nm (550 nm) which is characteristic of silver (gold) nanoparticles. The characterization of optical non-linear properties is in progress for these matrices.

Balasankar Meera Priyadarshini

National University of Singapore, Singapore
Title: Use of polymer-encapsulated polyphenol-richbioactive compounds as novel nano-carriers in dental drug delivery

Biography :

Balasankar Meera Priyadarshini (PhD candidate)

Since joining the National University of Singapore (NUS) as a PhD student, Meera has been working mainly with synthesis and characterization of nano- and micro-sizedpolymer-encapsulated MMPs inhibitors, and collagen cross-linkers for enhancing the longevity of resin-dentin adhesive interface as a novel mechanism for dentin-pulp complex and root canal applications.Meera acquired her MSc in Biomedical Engineering, NanyangTechinological University, Singapore (2009) and B.Tech in Biotechology, SRM University, India (2008).

Abstract :

Contemporary dentin bonding systems require a preliminary acid demineralization procedure that extract the minerals present in the dentin exposing the underlying collagen web and widening the dentinal tubule orifice eventually forming the hybrid layer (adhesive interface) and resin tags. Acid etching activates the host-derived Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), majority of which remain bound to the surrounding collagen and gradually degrades the fibrils over time. Preserving the integrity of collagen is very crucial for enhancing the longevity of resin-dentin bonds.Collagen-based materials are frequently stabilized by introducing cross-links in the fibrillar network to control the rate of biodegradation and preserve collagen properties over time.Proanthocyanidins-richpolyphenols are well-known collagen-crosslinkers and their ability to improve the mechanical stability of dentin collagen network has been proven earlier. In this work, we synthesize nano-encapsulatedbioactive polyphenolic compoundsin biocompatible and biodegradable polymers.Following purification, particles werecharacterized for size andmorphology. The polyphenol loading and corresponding entrapment efficiencies were determined by quantitative analyses.The inclusion of polyphenols in the formulations was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The controlled and slow released of polyphenols from the polymer particles have been detected. Antibacterial and cytotoxicity assays were also performed in-vitro. Following characterization, best formulations among synthesized were chosen and utilized for treatment with acid-etched dentin. Particles were infiltrated inside demineralized human dentin substrates simulatingclinical conditions. Pattern of delivery was investigated microscopically and sustained release of polyphenols inside dentin was observed in-vitro making these carriers potential candidates for controlled release of collage cross-linkers.

Eucharia Oluchi Nwaichi

University of Nottingham, UK
Title: Nanotoxicological indices at exposure for Vigna subterranea

Biography :

Dr. EuchariaOluchiNwaichi is an Environmental Biochemist and currently a visiting academic at the University of Nottingham. Beside her cores, she teaches HSE and Science communication and has worked in diverse industries. Eucharia never waits for a perfect condition to launch her studies geared at finding a sustainable, cheap, environmentally - friendly and safe clean up strategies for remediation of impacted environments, findings which are well consumed.   She has received many awards and honors, including the prestigious Commonwealth Fellowship, UNESCO L’Oreal International Fellowships FWIS, among many others. In addition, Eucharia has extensive experience in science outreach in a multi – disciplinary field approach and has worked with host communities and stakeholders to develop a phytoremediation model in a parched environment.

Abstract :

Effects of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) exposure on two geographical cultivars of Vignasubterranea from two African countries were investigated. After inoculation in half strength Hoagland medium amended with 250mg L-1 Ag NPs for 15 days, both physiological and biochemical responses were evaluated. Exposure significantly decreased plant growth by up to 85%. Interestingly, Ag NPs exposure significantly decreased mean shoot biomass in all treatments but increased root mass(34% and 66%) in relation to control. Chlorophyll production was reduced by approximately 46% (in the more tolerant) and 86% (in the more sensitive) for the two cultivars and observed catalase activity was about 50% of the activity in NPs stressed root tissues for the sensitive cultivar. It may be perceived that the inherent stress is associated with observed surge in catalase activity across all cultivars. Also, the observed increase in catalase activity is positively correlated at the 99.9% level (r = 0.9571, n = 10) with decreasingchlorophyll content on exposure. Recorded ascorbate peroxidase activity was higher in leaf tissues. Statistical analysis revealed marked difference between superoxide dismutase activities of V. subterranea cultivars and also between treatments. Time trend of transpiration rate revealed a decreasing trend throughout the growth period.

Keywords: Catalase; Peroxidase; Vigna subterranea; Superoxide dismutase; Silver nanoparticles exposure; Nanotoxicity; Transpiration rate; African crops.

Pushpendra Tripathi

Aligarh Muslim University, India
Title: Effect on structural, optical and dielectric properties of Co Doped (Bi0.9Co0.1) FeO3

Biography :

Abstract :

Nanoparticles of pure and Co doped BiFeO3 of the composition (Bi0.9 Co0.1) FeO3 have been successfully synthesized by auto combustion method using sucrose as a chelating agent and it has calcinated at 500°C. Microstructural analysis have been investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques.  The crystallite size has resolute by powder X-ray diffraction technique whereas, UV-VIS technique is used to study the optical properties and band gap (Eg) of all samples. It is observed that doping causes increase in the dielectric constant of the nanoparticles as compared with the pure nanoparticles. It has also found that doping of Co affects the optical properties effectively and band gap is also decreased.

Aruna Kasoju

JNTUA College of Engineering, India
Title:

Fluorescence based detection of ochratoxin producing fungal pathogens by using oligofunctionalized silicananoparticles

Biography :

Abstract :

Nucleotide functionalization of silicananoparticles has been used in fabrication of biosensors and biochips since the high surface area of nanosized silicananoparticles can increase the surface molecule loading and thus lead to higher performance of the biosensors and as a solid support for such molecules have opened the door to application in sensors. Recent advances in the field of nanotechnology have made it possible to detect microorganisms by using nanoparticles functionalized with oligonucleotides complementary to the gene tags of the microorganisms.

Ochratoxin is one of the most abundant foods contaminating mycotoxin produced by some Aspergillus and some penicillium species, Ochratoxin can cause kidney tumors in male and female rats as well as mammary glands tumors in female rats, it has been found in human blood, tissue, and in breast milk in several countries.  Presence of common motif in the upstream sequences of all the species producing ochratoxin has been identified, the gene tag is pks gene is used as biomarker and a probe is designed   for the detection of ochratoxin producers.

Various studies on synthesis of silicananoparticles their surface modification, probe immobilization, measurement of hybridization are studied. Target sequences with different mismatch are labeled with fluorescent dye and subjected for hybridization with probe immobilized on the surface of silicananoparticles, on hybridization to oligonucleotide target the fluorescence of the dye increases dramatically and easily detected and the fluorescence intensity upon hybridization with different sequences indicated variability in accordance with percentage of mismatch.

Results showed that the highest fluorescence signals for perfect complementary target ssDNA, because the probe has strong interaction with perfect complementary target DNA. A significant decrease in fluorescence signal was observed when hybridization with target sequences with increasing mismatch. The proposed hybridization assay could be used as an alternative analytical technique and it can provide an effective route in the development of DNA biosensors and biochips.

Ghazale Daneshvar Tarigh

University of Tehran, Iran
Title:

In situ immobilization of a general resolving agent on the magnetic multi wall carbon nanotube for the direct enantioenrichment of DL-mandelic acid

Biography :

Ghazale Daneshvar Tarigh received her PhD degree in analytical chemistry from University of Tehran, Iran in 2015. She received her bachelor's degree (B.Sc.) in pure chemistry at the University of Zanjan, in 2003. She got her master's degree (M.Sc.) under the direction of Prof. YadollahYamini at TMU and Prof. Ali Jabbari at KNTU in 2009. Her field of interest is the development of new extraction technologies, with an emphasis on miniaturizedsample preparation methods and separation techniques.

Abstract :

L-threonine (L-thr) as a general chiral selector anchored on the surface of magnetic multi wall carbon nanotube (MMWCNT) was prepared using an in situ electrostatic adsorption and studied as a new magnetically chiral selector for the separation of chiral DL-mandelic acid (DL-MA) as a model sample. By varying the pH, DL-MA was adsorbed on the surface of magnetic chiral selector through hydrogen bonds. It is recognized that MMWCNT with chiral ligands on its surface simultaneously possess both magnetic property and direct chiral recognition ability. The successful immobilization of L-thr onto the surface of MMWCNT was confirmed by infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) and transmission electon microscopy (TEM). The FT-IR and mass spectra of supernatant and elution solutions also confirmed the immobilization of L-thr onto the surface of MMWCNT. The analysis results of specific rotation, HPLC and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy reveal that the L-thr-MMWCNT show stronger complexation of (+)-enantiomer than (-)-enantiomer. The functional magnetic nanotubes were easily separated from the racemic solution using an external magnetic field which demonstrated its feasibility of recycling the adsorbent. All processes including in situ immobilization, enantioseparation (enantioenrichment) and magnetic separation were done by single process in a short time (only 10 min). 

Session 3 : Nanotechnology and Applications & Nanoscience

Chair

Theodore L. Einstein

University of Maryland, USA

Co-Chair

Joon Myong Song

Seoul National University, Korea

Session Introduction

Theodore L Einstein

University of Maryland, USA
Title: Giant regular arrays via adsorbed organic molecules: Experimental “parallel computing”?

Biography :

Ted Einstein has been on the physics faculty at University of Maryland, College Park, since 1975, focusing on theoretical problems related to experiments in their world-renowned surface physics group.  He served in various capacities on the Executive Board of the MRSEC (1996-2013) at UMD.  He is a Fellow of APS and AVS, and was a Humboldt Foundation Distinguished Senior U.S. Scientist Awardee.  He has been on the organizing committees of many local and international conferences and held visiting positions at NIST and in Sweden, Germany, France, and Italy.  In APS he was Div. Materials Physics he was APS Councillor and (2 terms) Secretary/Treasurer.  In AVS he was on the Executive Committee of the Div. of Surface Science twice.  He also served as a part-time Program Director at NSF and an expert consultant in a patent case.  Since 1996 he has been Chair of the Physical Sciences Program at UMD.

Abstract :

Experiments using scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STM) have revealed the formation of self-organized giant honeycomb networks on metal crystal surfaces.  Perhaps the most noteworthy example is anthraquinone (AQ, C14H8O2) on the close-packed face of copper, for which the hexagonal pores of the network contain 186 exposed Cu atoms.  While the formation of the chains and vertices the comprise the network can be readily accounted for in terms of hydrogen bonding between adjacent AQ molecules, the explanation of the largest characteristic spacing is more subtle and elusive, involving the metallic surface states of the substrate face.  Our initial interpretation was based on their Friedel oscillations, i.e. on the oscillatory interactions depending on the ratio of the separation of AQ molecules and the Fermi wavelength of the surface states that produce the quantum corrals seen with STM.  However, the existence of a similar structure for pentacenequinone on this surface—for which the pore area is the same but the separation of chains larger—invites the novel explanation that each pore accommodates the surface-state electrons into what amounts to two-dimensional closed-shell, noble-gas-like atoms in the second row of a “periodic” table of 2D “atoms.”  (Networks of much smaller pores on Cu(111) have been observed for other organics, e.g. dehydro-DPDI.)

The honeycomb network offers many tantalizing applications.  As progressively greater numbers of CO molecules are adsorbed within a pore, they take on different conformations.  There are preferred adsorption sites linked to standing electron waves in the pore, which can affect how adsorbates meet and react.  Remarkably, the COs also diffuse faster.  Near saturation a domain wall is forced into existence because of the different boundary conditions at adjacent walls of the hex pore.  In the confined geometry, equilibrium constants and reaction rates change considerably.  Because the pores are identical, one can simultaneously observe the evolution of many equivalent adsorbates systems, much as one does in simulations involving parallel computing. 

Work supported by NSF-CHE13-05892(TLE) and 13-05892 (LB).

Joon Myong Song

Seoul National University, Korea
Title:

Quantum dot nanoprobe-based high-content assay for the detection of cancer stem cells induced by benzo[a]pyrene

Biography :

Prof. Joon Myong Song received his Ph.D. in 1997 at Kyushu University, in Japan. He worked as a postdoctoral research fellow from 1998 to 2004 at Iowa State University, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in United States. At present he is a professor and head of Department of Pharmacy at College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University in South Korea. His research area includes multifunctional nanoparticle for diagnosis and therapy and high-content cell-based drug screening and diagnosis using hyper-multicolor cellular imaging. He has published 87 peer reviewed papers in the top journals, 7 book chapters, and 10 patents.

Abstract :

Introduction: Semiconductor Quantum Dots (QD) are tiny nanoscale particles that possess unique optical properties like size-tunable light emission, high brightness, photostability and simultaneous excitation and monitoring of multiple colors due to narrow emission range. High-content cell-based assay (HCA) has attracted great attention due to its ability to be used in the drug discovery-driven research and development required to understand the functions of genes and gene products at the level of the cell.HCA simultaneously measures multiple biomarkers in a single cell with multiplexing fluorescent probes. The complex intracellular responses involved in drug-induced efficacy or cytotoxicity can be observed in organ-specific cells by HCA.Despite HCA’s capability it is not common to simultaneously observe many biomarkers in an intact cell. Concurrent monitoring of multiple biomarkers is practically limited due to the spectral overlap among probing materials having broad absorption and emission spectrums. QD-based HCA is very advantageous because it can provide particular wavelengths that do not overlap among the probing materials and concurrently monitor a larger number of drug targets or biomarkers. In this work, QD-based HCA has been investigated to detect cancer stem cells induced by Benzo[a]pyrene (BP).

Results: It was found that breast CSCs were producedfrom MCF-7 cells by BP-induced mutation. Breast CSCs wereobtained using magnetic bead-based sorting from MCF-7 cells and detected throughhigh-content monitoring of three different markers CD44, CD24 and aldehyde dehydrogenase1(ALDH1) using the QD-based HCA.The BP-induced mutation was quantitatively observed via absorption spectra of BPDE-DNA adducts. MCF-7 cells were treated with BP at different concentration 0.2μM, 2μM, 5μM and 10μM for 24hr. The resultant CSCs in the entire MCF-7 cellswere determined to be 0.35±0.032%, 0.45±0.038%, 0.55±0.075%, 1.02±0.28% and 1.19±0.27% in control, 0.2μM, 2μM, 5μM and 10μM respectively.

Conclusions: QD-based HCA was very advantageous for the detection of CSCs induced by carcinogens such as benzo[a]pyrene. Spectral overlap among probes of CSC biomarkers could be eliminated and diagnostic accuracy could be greatly improved, compared with the conventional FACS. 

Tomonaga Ueno

Nagoya University, Japan
Title: A review on solution plasma process and its applications in nanotechnology

Biography :

Abstract :

Plasma technologies have been developed for nanomaterial synthesis and modification, including carbon related materials with various nanostructure, heteroatom nanomaterial, metallic-based particles, hydrides and oxides, and etc. The physical and chemical properties of synthesized material are highly dependent on the type of plasma and its reaction field. Plasma in liquid phase, when compared to that of plasma in gas, it can realize a higher reaction rate under lower-temperature conditions, and offer greater chemical reaction variability since the molecular density of liquid is much higher than that of gas phase. So the non-equilibrium plasma in liquid phase was called by “solution plasma”. By using solution plasma process (SPP), we can introduce variety of plasma by choosing the combinations of solvents and solutes in solutions.The schematic of SPP is displayed in Figure 1. In this presentation, the features of SPP and the applications including By using solution plasma process (SPP), we can introduce variety of plasma by choosing the combinations of solvents and solutes in solutions. In this study, we have summarized recent studies of applying SPP method to synthesize various nanomaterials for (1) Graphitic structure carbon nanosphere (CNS) as cathode material for Li-air battery application, (2) Metallic catalysts supported on CNS for cathode material with ORR catalytic activity (3) heteroatom doped carbon matrix for non-metal based ORR catalysts for fuel cell application, and (4) small molecules from natural products are being reported.

Ziad A Toma

Al-Mustansiriyah University, Iraq
Title: Preparation and characterization of the PVA nanofibers produced by electrospinning

Biography :

Dr. Ziad A. Toma is Assit. Professor of physics department, college of education, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Is received his M.Sc. degree from Nahrain University, college of science, physics department,   Iraq. 1999, and PhD degree from Baghdad University, college of science, physics department, Iraq, 2008,  his research interests include: thin films, nanotechnology, superconductivity composites , astronomy physics.

Abstract :

Electro spinning is a simple and quick technique for producing fibers with nano scale diameters from a wide range of materials. The Polyvinyl alcohol PVA Polymer dissolved in the DMF was electrospun to obtain the alignment nanofibers PVA. The nanofibers were obtained using 25 wt % solution concentration, an applied voltage 10 kV, spinning distance10 cm and different flow rates of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 ml/hr. The properties of alignment nanofibres including morphology, crystallization, functional group and the effected of flow rates on it was studied.

The morphology of the electrospun PVA nanofibres is studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Structural characteristics analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) that showed the crystalline peaks of the PVA nanofiber. The formation of functional group of PVA polymer was predicted by the FT-IR spectra.

Gomaa F. Salma

American University in Cairo, Egypt
Title: Fabrication and characterization of antibacterial herbal drug-loaded poly-lactic acid/cellulose acetate composite nanofibers for wound dressing applications

Biography :

Salma Fouad is M.Sc. holder, nano-chemistry, American university in Cairo (AUC). She was first graduated from faculty of science, Ain shams University in 2010. In spring 2012, she joined the American university, as a chemistry master student, and got her degree in fall 2015.

Salma worked as teaching assistant in the chemistry department, AUC, from fall 2012-till spring 2015. In 2013, Salma joined Zewail city for science and technology where she worked asboth teaching assistant in the chemistry department, andresearch assistant in the material science department, Nanotechnology center.

Salma was awarded the University fellowship and the thesis grant from the School of science and engineering, AUC. Also she was awarded the graduate student of honor for her academic achievement throughout her graduate study. 

Abstract :

Interactive polymeric electrospun nanofibers is considered a very promising matrix for treatment of chronic wounds. The 3 dimensional structure of nanofibers allow it to mimic the extracellular matrix of the tissues. Also the ability to deliver bioactive ingredients allow it to further promote wound healing and preventing infections. Polylactic acid (PLA) is a versatile biopolymer that is widely used as a biomaterial. However, one of the major issues which limits its further application in tissue engineering purposes is its hydrophobic nature and poor cellular interaction. a In this study, an antibacterial electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds, with diameters around 400–1000 nm, were prepared by physical blending PLA with a hydrophylic biopolymer, cellulose acetate (CA), to achieve desirable properties such as better hydrophilicity, excellent cell attachment and proliferation. For preventing common clinical infections, an antimicrobial agent, Thymoquinone, TQ was incorporated into the electrospun fibers. TQ is the active ingredient of Nigella sativa andit is well known for its antibacterial properties and ability to promote wound healing. The potentiality of the prepared scaffolds, regarding being used as an interactive wound dressing, has been investigated including, swelling behavior, WVP and porosity.  The release profile of TQ from the prepared scaffolds was also examined at the physiological pH (7.4) and temperature (37 οC). The antimicrobial efficiency of the prepared scaffolds against gram negative and gram positive bacteria were determined by the agar diffusion assay. The interaction between fibroblasts and the TQ-loaded PLA: CA scaffolds such as viability, proliferation, and attachment were characterized. TQ-loaded PLA: CA scaffolds showed burst TQ release after 24 h, compared with medicated PLA scaffolds, followed by a sustained release rate for 9 successive days. The presence of CA in the nanofiberous scaffolds improved its hydrophilicity, and water uptake capacity. Furthermore, it created a moist environment for the wound, which can accelerate wound recovery.The results also indicated that medicated PLA: CA nanocomposite scaffolds showed a significant antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. TQ-loaded PLA: CA composite scaffolds enhanced cell viability, attachment and proliferation, as compared to TQ-loaded PLA nanofibers.  A preliminary in vivo study performed on normal full thickness mice skin wound models demonstrated that TQ-loaded PLA: CA (7:3) scaffolds significantly accelerated the wound healing process by promoting angiogenesis, increasing re-epithelialization and controlling granulation tissue formation. Our results suggest that TQ-loaded PLA: CA nanocomposite mat could be an ideal biomaterial for wound dressing applications.

Key wards: Poly-lactic acid, cellulose acetate, wound dressing, chronic wounds

Naumih M. Noah

United States International University Africa (USIU-A), Kenya
Title: Screen Printed Electrodes (SPE) based nano-immunosensor for detection of bilharzia in Kenya

Biography :

Abstract :

Bilharzia is one of the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), a group of chronic disabling infections affecting more than a billion people worldwide, mainly in Africa and mostly the poor. In Kenya, these NTDs affects more than 50% of the population fueling the vicious circle of poverty and stigma that leaves people unable to work, go to school, or participate in family and community life. Highly sensitive detection and accurate analysis is essential for the early detection, treatment, and management of these diseases. Current methods of detection rely on microscopic detection which is tedious, unreliable and suffers poor sensitivity. In this work, a Nano-based immunosensor for early detection which rely on nano-immunological response between an antibodies against Bilharzia conjugated to nanoparticles and Bilharzia antigen will be reported. The conjugation of the antibodies with nanoparticles combines the unique properties of the nanoparticles with the specific and selective recognition ability of the antibodies to antigens. The hybrid product has improved cellular uptake as well as the major intracellular stability and may show versatility and specificity with improved analytical signal important for rapid, sensitive and real-time point of care diagnosis. The work will report the use of screen printed electrodes for a potential development of a Nano-device for point-of-care diagnostic of Bilharzia.

Key Words: Nano-immunosensor, Nanoparticles, Nano-immunological Response, Screen Printed Electrodes

Koji Takeda

NTT Device Technology Laboratories, Japan
Title:

Electrically driven nanocavity lasers on silicon with photonic-crystal cavity and ultra small buried heterostructure

Biography :

Koji Takeda received the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in electronics engineering from the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, in 2005, 2007, and 2010, respectively. From 2008 to 2010, he received a research fellowship for young scientists from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. He joined NTT Photonics Laboratories in 2010. His current research interests include ultralow-power optical interconnects, InP photonic integrated circuits, and photonic crystal lasers. He is now with NTT Device Technology Laboratories.

Dr. Takeda is a member of the IEEE Photonics Society, Japan Society of Applied Physics (JSAP), and the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers (IEICE). He received the Best Student Paper Award from the IEEE Photonics Society in 2009, the Outstanding Student Presentation Award from the JSAP in 2010, and the Best Paper Award from the IEICE in 2013.

Abstract :

The performance of CMOS chips has continuously improved as they have been scaled down. However, electrical interconnects are becoming a bottleneck to further improvement, because small-size and narrow-pitch wires have large resistance and capacitance, which results in large energy consumption. There have been many attempts to realize on-CMOS-chip optical interconnects with small energy consumption and large band width. Considering the allowable power supply for CMOS chips and communications bandwidth, light sources should be operated with energy consumption on the order of 10 fJ/bit or 0.01 mW/Gbit/s.

In this context, we are studying photonic crystal (PhC) lasers. Reducing the size of the active region is an effective way to reduce the energy consumption of directly modulated semiconductor lasers. However, since this reduces optical confinement in the active region, we have employed PhC cavities to maintain large optical confinement. After these important features, we named our PhC lasers lambda-scale embedded active region PhC(LEAP) lasers.

We have used oxygen-plasma-assisted bonding to integrate InP-based III-V material on Si substrate. InGaAsPthree-quantum-well active layers were formed on thermally oxidized Si substrates, followed by buried heterostructure regrowth with dimensions of 2.5 × 0.3×0.15 µm3. Lateral p-i-n junctions were formed by ion implantation of Si and thermal diffusion of Zn for n and p doping, respectively. We formed the PhC cavity by electron-beam lithography and dry etching, followed by electrode formation.

We achieved continuous-wave operation of LEAP lasers on Si substrate at room temperature, with a threshold current of 57 µA and a maximum output power of 3.5 µW. The lasing wavelength was determined by the lattice constant of the PhC, and it was 1554.2 nm. Although the output power from the device was not large enough to evaluate dynamic characteristics, LEAP lasers on InP substrate showed direct modulation at a bit rate of 10 Gbit/s with very small energy consumption of 5.5 fJ/bit. From the potential small-energy device performance and integrability on Si substrates, we believe LEAP lasers are very promising for future on-chip optical interconnects.

Jian Wang

Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China
Title: On-chip quaternary/octal/hexadecimal optical computing using silicon nanophotonic devices

Biography :

Jian Wang received the Ph.D. degree in physical electronics from the Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China, in 2008. He worked as a Postdoctoral Research Associate in the optical communications laboratory in the Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering of the Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA, from 2009 to 2011.He is currently a professor at the Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology,Wuhan, China.

Jian Wang has devoted his research efforts to innovations in photonic integrated devices and frontiersof high-speed optical communications and optical signal processing. He has more than 250 publications, including 3 book chapters, 2 special issues, 2 review articles, 5 invited papers, 42 tutorial/keynote/invited talks, 8 postdeadline papers, and more than 100 journal papers published on Science, Nature Photonics, Scientific Reports, Optics Express, Optics Letters, etc.

Abstract :

Optical signal processing is considered to be an attractive technique to overcome the speed bottleneck of electronics and accelerate future high-speed optical communication networks. Optical nonlinearities are potentially well suited to perform various optical signal processing functions, among which optical computing is a basic building block. With recent advances in signal modulation schemes from binary modulation formats to m-ary modulation formats, it is expected to promote the traditional binary logic operations to high-base (quaternary/octal/hexadecimal) optical computing functions. Previously, binary logic operations and high-base optical computing functions were demonstrated on different platforms of semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), highly nonlinear fiber (HNLFs) and periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguides. Despite impressive operation performance, ultra-compact platform is still highly desired to offer integrated optical signal processing solutions. Silicon photonics isa promising low cost integration platform enabling on-chip optical signal processing owing to its distinct advantages of high index contrast, large optical nonlinearity, relaxed latencies, lower power consumption, and compatibility with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In this scenario, it would be valuable to exploit optical nonlinearities in silicon nanophotonic devices to facilitate on-chip high-base optical computing.

In this talk, we review recent research progress in on-chip high-base optical computing using silicon nanophotonic devices. By exploiting degenerate and non-degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) processes in ultra-compact silicon waveguides and employing quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK)/8-ary phase-shift keying (8PSK)/16-ary phase-shift keying (16PSK) signals, we demonstrate grooming on-chip quaternary/octal/hexadecimal optical computing functions (addition, subtraction, doubling, hybrid).

Narinder Paul Singh

IKG Punjab Technical University Jalandhar, India
Title:

Structural, electrical and magnetic properties of nano spinel ferrite

Biography :

He obtained his Doctorate (Ph.D.) from Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India in 1987. He was Visiting Faculty at Department of Physics, Grambling State University, Grambling, Louisiana, LA 71245, USA and worked as Visiting Scientist at International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Italy and Jozef Stephan Institute, Ljublijana, Yugoslavia.

He had completed sponsored research projects successfully on “Development of Lead based Ceramics for applications in Pyro-electric IR Sensors”, “On   the   transport   properties   of III -V   Compound semi - conducting Thin Films”, “Development of GaxIn1-xSb thin films for Device applications” and  “Development of LPE for semiconducting thin films”.

He published book entitled, “Experiments in Materials Sciences” and was the Guest Editor for the special issue on Material Science: Trends and Future, published by Indian Journal of Engineering & Material Science.

Abstract :

The structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Co-spinel nano ferrites synthesized by combustion route have been studied. The thermo-gravimetric study reveals that the stable phase formation above ~620°C. Structural characterization was carried out by using the X-ray diffraction technique. The X-ray diffraction study reveals that the lattice constant of cobalt nano ferrites increases with the increase of Mn content. Dialectrical properties of Co-ferrite have been studied with frequency and temperature dependence. Room temperature magnetization measurement showed that for the substitution of Co by Mn, there is an initial increase in saturation magnetization (Ms) and remanence (Mr) for x=0.0 to x=0.4 and decrease for x=0.5.The coercivity values of the samples increases with increase of Mn content. The sample Co0.7Mn0.3Fe2O4 exhibit the superior magnetic properties which can be further employed to form magnetoelectric (ME) composites useful for sensor applications.

Bing Wang

Shenzhen University, China
Title: Field emission of ZnO microrods array with nanospikes

Biography :

Bing Wang received her Ph.D. degrees in materials physics and chemistry from SunYat-sen University in China at 2007. In 2007, she joined Shenzhen University in China as a Lecturer and became Associate Professor of Optoelectronic engineering at 2009. Her research interests include (i) development of new nanomaterials forthe gas sensorapplications, (ii) sensor devices, (iii) micro-fabrication process, (iv) vacuummicro/nanoelectronics, and (v) optical characteristics of nanomaterials.

Abstract :

ZnO microrods array with nanospikes are fabricated on silicon substrate using thermal chemical vapor transport. The field emission property of ZnO microrods array with nanospikes is characterized. The low turn-on electronic field and the high current density are achieved with ZnO microrods array with nanospikes as the emitters. It is suggested that the special morphology of ZnO microrods array with nanospikes play a crucial role for its excellent field emission property, and well aligned ZnO microrods array with nanospikes can be a promising candidate for an emitter. The growth mechanism of ZnO microrods array with nanospikes can be explained by the combination of vapor–solid (VS) and secondary nucleation processes.

Choon-Gi Choi

Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Korea
Title: Wafer-scale graphene synthesis and applications in electronics and photonics

Biography :

Choon-Gi Choireceived the doctorate in Physicsfrom Universitéd’Orléans, Francein 1996. He is currently a director at Creative Research Center for Graphene Electronics in Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Korea and a professor at the department of advanced device technology in University of Science and Technology (UST), Korea. He is also an associate editor of the Nano Convergence journal with Springer publishing.From 1996 until now, he is working for the ETRI, where he has developed micro- and nano-photonic and optoelectronic devices and graphene-based electronic and photonic devices. His current research interests are large-scale graphene synthesis, graphene and TMDC-based electronic and photonic devices, metamaterial-based 3D holographic devices, nano-structured photonic and optoelectronic devices, etc.He has authored or co-authored over 100 papers and holds over 20 U.S. patents as well as 50 Korean patents.

Abstract :

Because of its excellent electronic and photonic properties, graphene has attracted enormous interest. Its charge mobility, electrical conductivity and optical transparency in addition to its flexibility, robustness and environmental stability make graphene a promising material for a wide range of applications ranging from electronics through photonics to plasmonics. However, its true potential application will not be attained until production compatible methods are achieved.

In this talk I present CVD based large-scale high quality graphene synthesis for electronic applications. Simultaneous growth of the multi-layer and single-layer graphenes changing continuously the electrical resistance and the optical transmittance is introduced. I also demonstrate a flexible and transparent gas molecule sensor consisting of a graphene sensor channel and a graphene heater. This combined structure leads to fully utilizing unique transparent and flexible functionalities of graphene with invariable sensing performance under a bending condition.

I also introduce the progress in graphene-based photonic and plasmonic devices such as thermo-optic mode extinction modulator and planar lightwave circuit-type plasmonic photodetector for all graphene-based photonic integrated circuits (PICs). A thermo-optic (TO) mode extinction modulator based on graphene plasmonic waveguide is introduced. The graphene plasmonic waveguide is served as a light signal guiding medium with a successful 2.5 Gbps optical signal transmission at a wavelength of 1.31 μm. A planar-type graphene plasmonic photodetector is also introduced with the configuration of the graphene plasmonic waveguide and photodetector structure all-in-one to detect horizontally incident light for the easy and simple integration.