International Nanotechnology Conference & Expo
April 4-6, 2016   Baltimore, USA
Day 1 : 04:04:2016

Keynote Forum

Dermont Bouchard

USEPA Office of Research and Development, USA
Keynote:
EPA/ORD aquatic exposure research with MWCNTs and graphene oxide

Biography :

Dr. Dermont Bouchard has 30+ years of experience at USEPA where his research focuses on contaminant transport and fate in the environment. Currently Dr. Bouchard is a Project Leader for Engineered Nanomaterials (ENMs) research where his responsibilities include strategic (EPA/ORD-wide planning for nanomaterials environmental fate research) and tactical (principal investigator for carbon nanotubes and graphene family materials transport and eco-exposure research) planning and research in support of EPA’s national program Chemical Safety for Sustainability. Key research interests are ENM interactions with model and naturally occurring surfaces, transport in surface waters, and development of functional assays for ENM attachment, transformation, and biomarker response in support of ENM aquatic exposure model parameterization.

Abstract :

Anticipated applications and production volumes of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have raised concerns about ENM release and potential adverse effects in the environment. Laboratory studies have demonstrated the impact of commercial surfactants and naturally occurring dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the stability of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in aqueous suspensions. While these studies have demonstrated the efficacy of surfactants and DOC on stabilizing MWCNTs, it is unclear how these surface active agents operate in more complex systems. For example, a reasonable scenario for MWCNT release to the environment is where MWCNT’s have been stabilized in suspension with the use of commercial surfactants and then accidentally released into a waterway as surfactant-wrapped MWCNTs where they interact with naturally occurring surfactant-like DOC. Studies have also indicated that graphene oxide (GO), an important member of the graphene family of nanomaterials, is physically stable in the water column but may undergo phototransformation yielding a wide array of transformation products with differing transport and biomarker response characteristics. In this presentation we report on EPA/ORD in-house research with MWCNTs and GO in these key research areas: 1) suspension and stability in the water column, with a focus on the influence of ionic strength and naturally occurring DOC; 2) attachment to surfaces using model (quartz crystal microbalance sensors) and environmental surfaces (sediments); 3) biomarkers of ENM exposure utilizing model cell membranes and metabolomics techniques; 4) phototransformations in the aquatic environment; and 5) modeling exposure in surface waters using the Water quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP8) updated with particle attachment kinetic parameters.

Keynote Forum

Yuri Dekhtyar

Riga Technical University, Latvia
Keynote:
Electron emission of the carbon nanotube-reinforced epoxy surface nano layer towards detection of its destruction induced by elastic deformation

Biography :

Prof. Yuri Dekhtyar has the expertise to  functionalize and characterize nanoobjects and nanostructured  materials. He is the leader in prethreshold electron and exoelectron spectroscopy.  Has around 450 publications, leaded a number of the international and national projects. Head of the Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Nanotechnologies of the Riga Technical University, Latvia; Latvian State Prize winner; full member of the of the Latvian Academy of Sciences; member of national and international societies .  Organized several international conferences, delivered a number of the invited lectures at the meetings and universities around the world. Contributed to the education of hundreds BSc, MSc students both at the home and internationally hosting universities. Supervised a number of PhD students. 

Abstract :

A loaded material surface that interrupts a continuum is a mechanical stress concentrator. Therefore atomic/molecular couples situated at the surface nanolayer could be overloaded and destructed. These strongly result the material exploiting capacity under chemical and microbiological environment conditions. Dilatation and destruction of the couples alters the surface potential barrier (PB) that an electron  excited by an external source is able to leave. In this respect the electron emission (EE) of the loaded material is able to indicate its overloading/destruction.
A carbon nanotube-reinforced epoxy composite (NREC) that is characterized with high strength-to-weight ratio has a wide perspective for aerospace, automotive, civil engineering, etc technical applications. However, a knowledge about NREC surface processes induced by mechanical loading that overload/destroy atomic/molecular couples is very poor.
The research is directed to in situ explore  EE induced by axial loading of NREC. The specimens prepared for the central axial loading as typically were loaded at the vacuum 10-4 Pa. The specimens had a concentration of the carbon nanotubes (CNT) in a range 0…1.0%. The EE was detected alongside with loading. The EE was excited by the ultraviolet  photons. Their energy was selected to be close to the PB. As the result an energy of the exited electrons was around  5eV and therefore they emitted just from the NREC surface nanolayer with a thickness ~ 10 nm. A secondary electron multiplier was to detect electrons, their current being was around  > 10-17 …10-16 A.
The experiments demonstrated that EE depended nonlinearly on the elastic strain extended from 0 to 2% .  Several maxima of  EE current were detected that evidenced about excitation/damaging of surface atomic-molecular couples. The first maximum displayed at ~ 0.3 % of strain and was identified as delivered from the epoxy binder. The EE current decreased around 10 times with raising of the CNT concentration in the above range. This indicated increasing of PB, the latter relating to the elasticity module. Growth of  CNT  concentration increased elasticity module and induced the EE maximum at  ~ 1.2% of strain (~60 % of the strength).
The results achieved are in favor that EE is the effective instrument to explore  NREC  surface nano layer destruction induced by the elastic deformation.

 Acknowledgement
The research leading to the above results has received the funding from Latvia state research programme under grant agreement "INNOVATIVE MATERIALS AND SMART TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, IMATEH”.

Keynote Forum

Irene M. C. Lo

The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Hong Kong
Keynote:
Nanotechnology application in water and wastewater treatment

Biography :

Prof. Irene M. C. Lo is full professor at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST). She is an elected Academician of European Academy of Sciences and Arts (EASA), elected Fellow of Hong Kong Institution of Engineers (FHKIE) and American Society of Civil Engineers (FASCE). Her Ph.D. (1992) is in Civil (Environmental) Engineering from University of Texas, Austin. She is Adjunct Professor of Tongji University, Tianjin University, Jilin University and Harbin Institute of Technology in China. She had been Visiting Professor at Technical University of Denmark and University of Wisconsin, Madison. She was the recipient of 2004 ASCE James Croes Medal, 2007 ASCE Samuel Arnold Greeley Award, 2008 EWRI Best Practice-Oriented Paper Award, 2009 ASCE Wesley W Horner Award and 2012 ASCE EWRI Best Practice-Oriented Paper Award. She has 2 patents, edited 7 technical books, and published over 260 SCI journal articles and conference papers with about 4500 citations and H-index of 35. Her research areas include remediation technologies for river sediment, contaminated soils and groundwater; magnetic nano- and microparticles for environmental pollution control; pollutant migration in soils; and waste treatment and management.

Abstract :

Nanomaterials play an important role in the treatment of water and wastewater. Metal oxides based nanomaterials such asγ-Fe2O3and Fe3O4based magnetic nanoparticles and core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 structure magnetic nano-photocatalysts have been widely investigated for the removal and recovery of toxic contaminants from aqueous solutions because of their high surface area to volume ratio, high physic-chemical stability, biocompatibility, and efficient regeneration of spentnanoadsorbents. The magnetic nanomaterials can be characterized using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) for crystal identification, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for size and morphology investigation, BET analyzer for surface area measurement, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) for magnetic property and behavior analysis.

Surface and subsurface watercontamination has created great attention of environmental scientists and engineers to eliminate toxic contaminantsfrom wastewater before discharging into water bodies. Nowadays, it has become a hot topic to develop novel nanoscale adsorbent materials for the removal of toxic dyes, heavy metal and persistent organic pollutant (POP) under varying experimental conditions. Adsorption-desorption or photocatalytic degradation of pollutants from aqueous media to the interface of nanoadsorbents have been investigated to understand the contaminant removal performance using isotherm equations and kinetic sorption rate and to determine their removal mechanisms using FTIR, XPS and surface complexation modeling. In this presentation, recent advances in toxic dyes, heavy metal and POP removal from water and wastewater by magnetic nanoparticles and magnetic nano-photocatalystswill be presented in regards to their synthesis, characterization, applications and limitation.In order to further examine the compatibility of thesenovel magnetic sorbents in industrial application, a novel prototype flow-through treatment system through the combination of an electro-magnetic separation unit, and magnetic nanoparticles based contaminant removal process, including sorption, desorption, recovery and regeneration of the magnetic sorbents will be presented.

Keynote Forum

Lourdes G. Salamanca-Riba

University of Maryland, USA
Keynote:
Evolution of the EELS spectra across the interface of 4H-SiC/SiO2 metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors processed by different methods*

Biography :

Lourdes Salamanca-Riba is a Professor in the Materials Science and Engineering Department at the University of Maryland. Her research is in the areas of nanomaterials, self-assembly in semiconductor nanostructures, hybrid photovoltaics, solid oxide fuel cells and carbon nanostructures in metals called covetics. Her research focus is on the synthesis and characterization of materials using transmission electron microscopy. She has a BS degree in Physics from the Universidad AutónomaMetropolitana in Mexico City and a PhD degree also in Physics from MIT.  She was a Senior Research Scientist at the GM Research Laboratory in Warren, MI prior to becoming a faculty member at the University of Maryland.  Professor Salamanca-Riba has over 140 publications and is a member of the Materials Research Society, American Physical Society and the Microscopy Society of America.

Abstract :

The interface between 4H-SiC and SiO2 in metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) devices contains a high density of electrically active defects even though the interface is very sharp.  The defects adversely affect the performance of microelectronic devices by lowering the electron mobility at the interface compared to that of bulk SiC. Furthermore, the charge mobility of these devices is greatly affected by the process used for deposition, or growth, of the oxide as well as any post oxidation process. The most prevalent treatment is a nitric oxide (NO) post-anneal which gives rise to increase in the interface mobility. In addition, devices fabricated on different crystallographic faces of SiC, or with varying miscut at the interface show markedly different electronic performance. Post oxidation annealing in NO has shown improved channel mobility, increased N interfacial density, and decreased charged interface trap density. We present a systematic analysis of the chemistry and structure of the oxide/SiC interface by monitoring the change in the fine structure of the Si-L2,3, C-K and O-K edges in the electron energy loss spectra within a few nanometers of the interface of devices processed by different methods.  Our results indicate that the Si-L2,3, C-K and O-K change at the interface indicating a different chemical structure within this region.

*Supported by ARL under Grants No. W911NF-11-2-0044 and W911NF-07-2-0046, and NSF GRFP Grant No. DGE 1322106

Keynote Forum

Joon Myong Song

Seoul National University, Korea
Keynote:
Synthesis of bifunctional therapeutic silver-pyridoxine nanoparticle with antibacterial and proliferative activity

Biography :

Prof. Joon Myong Song received his Ph.D. in 1997 at Kyushu University, in Japan. He worked as a postdoctoral research fellow from 1998 to 2004 at Iowa State University, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in United States. At present he is a professor and head of Department of Pharmacy at College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University in South Korea. His research area includes multifunctional nanoparticle for diagnosis and therapy and high-content cell-based drug screening and diagnosis using hyper-multicolor cellular imaging. He has published 87 peer reviewed papers in the top journals, 7 book chapters, and 10 patents.

Abstract :

Introduction: Silver nanoparticles have attracted great attention due to their enhanced antibacterial properties arising from larger surface area per volume compared to silver ion. The moisturizing effect inherent to silver nanoparticles also contributes greatly to its use as a topical antibacterial agent for wound healing. The antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles provides topical wounds with an indirect environment for healing by the prevention of pathogenic infection. However, the direct wound-healing effects of silver nanoparticles have not been explored until now. The wound healing involves a number of complex processes such as epithelialization. Although antibacterial effect on wounded skin provides a suitable environment for epithelialization to occur, it does not accelerate epithelialization directly. In order for silver nanoparticles to be a more powerful topical therapeutic agent, it is necessary to have a direct wound healing activity in addition to antibacterial effect. In this work, we report a bimodal therapeutic silver nanoparticle that possesses both direct wound-healing and antibacterial properties.

Results: The synthetic nanoparticles consisted of high-valent silver-pyridoxine complexes to achieve bi-functional therapeutic activities of both antibacterial and proliferative property. An MAPK pathway study proved that silver nanoparticle induced proliferation and migration to keratinocyte and fibroblast cells. Antibacterial activities in 10 different pathogenic bacteria responsible for the infection of burn wound were tested. Its wound-healing efficacy was verified through diabetic mice as well as in vitro assay. Faster wound healing occurring on the skin wound of diabetic mice attested great potential of bimodal therapeutic silver nanoparticles as a next-generation topical therapeutic agent.

Conclusions: From the scrape assay and signaling pathway study, it is clear that silver-pyridoxine nanoparticle accelerates the proliferation and migration of fibroblast and keratinocyte cells. Silver-pyridoxine nanoparticle promotes the process of wound healing in diabetic mice. These wound healing efficacies, along with the antibacterial and moisturizing properties inherent to SPN, are expected to pave the way for next-generation topical silver nanotherapeutic agents.

Session 1: Nanobiotechnology & Nano and Biomaterials

Chair

Michael R. McDevitt

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, USA

Co-Chair

Mark A. DeCoster

Louisiana Tech University, USA

Session Introduction

Michael R McDevitt

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, USA
Title: Deconvoluting hepatic processing of fibrillar nanocarbon

Biography :

Michael R. McDevitt, Ph.D. is an Associate Attending in the Department of Radiology at Memorial Hospital, an Associate Laboratory Member in the Sloan-Kettering Institute, and an Assistant Professor in the Department of Medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College. He specializes in the development of targeted drug therapies. He has developed clinical radioimmunotherapeutic drugs that combine antibodies and radionuclides for cancer therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Several of these drugs have reached human clinical trials, including the first targeted alpha particle therapies and alpha particle emitting radionuclide generators. For the past decade he has been investigating the pharmacology of fibrillar nanocarbon. After receiving his Ph.D. degree in Chemistry from Case Western Reserve University in 1985, Dr. McDevitt worked in biotechnology and joined MSKCC in 1995. He is also a member of Memorial Sloan-Kettering’s Brain Tumor Center and Center for Molecular Imaging & Nanotechnology. Dr. McDevitt has published 75 papers, reviews, or chapters in these fields.

Abstract :

Fibrillar nanocarbon presents many appealing characteristics as a component for designing drug delivery platforms. Differential degrees of accretion and clearance from critical tissues directly correlate with the chemical and physical modifications of fibrillar nanocarbon. The liver is an organ in which most particulate drugs accumulate and therefore of critical importance in regard to understanding nanocarbon pharmacology and toxicity. While the pharmacokinetic profile of nanocarbon has been described down to the organ level, there has been little data reported beyond that point. Here we provide a complete account of hepatic cytodistribution, receptor-mediated endocytosis, cellular trafficking, and biliary elimination of covalently functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes. This soluble nanomaterial localized in the liver sinusoids, and unexpectedly, specifically in the discontinuous sinusoidal endothelial cell population. Interestingly, there was little to no accumulation in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, bile duct epithelium, or the continuous vascular endothelial lining. The accumulation by these sinusoidal cells was mediated by a pair of specialized scavenger receptors. Other tissues that express these same receptors were also found to accumulate nanotubes. A fraction of the nanocarbon that was not endocytosed by the hepatic sinusoidal scavenger cells was found in the bile destined for hepatobiliary elimination. This surprising cytodistribution profile and biliary mode of clearance, in conjunction with the rapid renal elimination via glomerular filtration that we showed previously, suggested that drug-based applications of fibrillar nanocarbon will be feasible in humans.

Mary Anne S Melo

University of Maryland Dental School, USA
Title: Designing smarter dental materials to fight dental caries

Biography :

Dr. Mary Anne Melo is an assistant professor at the Operative Dentistry Division/Department of Endodontics, Prosthodontics and Operative Dentistry at University of Maryland School of Dentistry. Dr. Melo’s research focuses on interactions between oral biofilms and dental biomaterials with an emphasis on developing novel strategies to reduce the initiation and progression of dental caries adjacent to existing restorations (recurrent caries). Her work involves studies for development of novel dental and bioactive materials that have functionalities for caries-inhibiting, antibacterial, or remineralization. These materials include dental composites, nanocomposites, sealants, bonding agents, cements, etc. Dr. Melo is a current member of the Academy of Operative Dentistry; the International Association for Dental Research; the Society for Color and Appearance in Dentistry, and American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry. Dr. Melo has published over 40 research articles and serves as reviewer for several journals in Dentistry, Medicine and Biomaterials.

Abstract :

The global epidemic of tooth decay affects more than 90% of the world’s population. Tooth decay so called dental caries is a multifactorial disease in which the fermentation of sugars from daily diet by dental plaque leads to localised demineralisation of tooth surfaces, which may ultimately result in cavity formation. Dental caries at the margins of restorations has been the main reason for restoration failure.The replacement of the failed restorations accounts for 50-70% of all tooth cavity restorations performed. The development of recurrent caries at the tooth-restoration margins is a primary reason for composite restoration failures. Dental restorative materials such as composites, glass ionomer cements, and adhesive systems are being widely used; however, they still have several drawbacks.  These dental materials are in contact with tooth and can be the ideal vehicle for delivering anticaries agents. Nanotechnology has been applied to develop the next generation of dental restorative materials with desirable bioactive proprieties, to not only replace the missing tooth volume, but also exert therapeutic effects to combat caries. Nanoparticles of silver (NAg) and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) were introduced into restorative materials to achieve antimicrobial and remineralizing properties, respectivatety. Another strategy to combat caries lesions around restorations is the incorporation of antibacterial monomers in the dental material composition. The antibacterial, remineralizing and mechanical properties of these new materials indicate that novel nano-sized agents can fight bacteria and reduce the demineralization in restored tooth cavities.This lecture summarizes the ongoing advances expresssed by a set of studies from our research groupconsidering mechanical properties, antibacterial activity and biocompatibility of emerging functionalized nanoparticles as strategies for addressing dental restorative challenges. This includes new nanomaterials with potent antibacterial activity as well as remineralization capability, the combination of several bioactive agents together in resin for effective caries inhibition, and their promising in vitro properties and in vivo performance.

Aiichiro Nagaki

Kyoto University, Japan
Title: Organolithium chemistry to green chemistry

Biography :

Dr. Aiichiro Nagaki, now is a junior associate professor of department of synthetic chemistry and biological chemistry, graduate school of engineering, kyoto university. Aiichiro Nagaki graduated from Doshisha University in 2000. He received his PhD in 2005 from Kyoto University under the supervision of Professor Junichi Yoshida. He worked with Professor Hiroaki Suga, Tokyo University, from 2005 as a postdoctoral fellow. In 2006, he became an assistant professor of Kyoto University. He was promoted to a senior lecturer in 2013. His current research interests are organic synthesis and microreactor synthesis. Awards: Takeda Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Award in Synthetic Organic Chemistry, Japan (2012), Incentive Award in Synthetic Organic Chemistry, Japan (2012), and Young Innovator Award on Chemistry, Micro-Nano Systems (2013), ESPEC Prize for the Encouragement of Environmental Studies (2013), and Flow Chemistry India 2014 Distinguished Presentation Award (2014).

Abstract :

Protecting-group-free synthesis has received significant recent research interest in the context of ideal synthesis and green sustainable chemistry. In general, organolithium species react with electrophilic functional groups very rapidly, and therefore such functional groups should be protected before an organolithium reaction, if they are not involved in the desired transformation. If organolithium chemistry could be free from such a limitation, its power would be greatly enhanced. A flow reactor enables such protecting-group-free organolithium reactions by choosing the appropriate residence time and the reaction temperature. Organolithium species bearing alkoxycarbonyl, nitro, and ketone carbonyl groups can be generated and reacted with various electrophiles using a flow system. In addition, asymmetric carbolithiation of conjugate enynes can be also achieved without the epimerization of a configurationally unstable chiral organolithium intermediate based on precise control of the residence time using a flow microreactor.

In this presentation, we report that a flow system enables the generation of various unstable organolithium compounds.

Raj Jana

University of Notre Dame, USA
Title: Novel electronic devices using smart piezoelectric/electrostrictive materialsc

Biography :

Dr. Raj K Jana is an Advisory Engineer of advanced nanoscale CMOS device division at IBM Semiconductor Research & Development Center, NY, USA, and Research Associate in Electrical Engineering Department at University of Notre Dame, IN, USA. He received his B.E. degree in Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering from Bengal Engineering and Science University, India, and Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering, at University of Notre Dame, 2015.Prior to Ph.D. program, from 2008 to 2009, he was with STMicroelectronics, India, where he worked on System-on-Chip design, validation based on 45-nm CMOS technology node.  From 2006 to 2008, he was with the Samtel R&D Center, India, where he worked as a design engineer on the development of efficient electronic driving systems in plasma display technology.  His research interests include the device physics, carrier transport, the development of novel high-performance energy-efficient electronic devices (capacitors, transistors) using III-V nitride semiconductors, and 2D materials for energy-efficient applications.

Abstract :

Power dissipation is one of the most challenging factors for continued semiconductor transistor scaling in the evolution of integrated circuits.  The heat generation due to large power dissipation density restricts the device scaling in integrated circuits (ICs).  To circumvent this power crisis in ICs, it requires exploring new materials/device structures and operating principles.  The goal is to design transistor switch in a way that the device dissipates less power during logic operation than conventional FETs, BJTs.  To meet this requirement, it has been suggested to reduce the conventional subthreshold slope (SS) limit below 60 mV/decade at room temperature.  Here, we propose a novel transistor switch that exploits electrostriction and piezoelectricity in piezoelectric/electrostrictive active gate barriers of transistors.  Using the smart materials as the barriers of parallel-plate capacitor, we first analytically showed how one can obtain positive and negative differential capacitance in piezoelectric capacitor based on the physics of Gauss’ electrostatics and electrostriction.  Furthermore, by using this piezoelectric capacitor in the gate capacitor of a transistor, we also showed, by exploiting negative barrier capacitance, how one can achieve an ON-current boost, a higher transconductance/gain, and a steep subthreshold switching (SS < 60 mV/decade) in transistors.  Finally experimental results for C-Vs, I-Vs ofcapacitors and transistors with steep SS ~ 46 mV/decade, and ION/IOFF ~ 109 using MBE-grown III-nitride piezoelectric heterostructures such as In0.17Al0.83N/AlN/GaN HEMTs with piezoelectric barrier layer thickness of ~2.5 nm and 5 nm will be presented and discussed.  In conclusion, this proposed novel devices have potential applications in energy-efficient, high-performance, digital and RF nanoelectronics.

Mohamed Amine Djebbi

University of Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France
Title: Novel biohybrids of layered double hydroxide and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme: Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity studies

Biography :

Mohamed Amine Djebbi is currently a third year PhD student working under the supervision of Doctor-engineer Philippe Namour at the University of Claude Bernard Lyon 1 Institute of Analytical Science. Prior to beginning the PhD program, Mohamed received his master degree from the University of Carthage Faculty of Science of Bizerte in 2013. He currently working on the thesis entitled "Hybrid and Biohybrid Layered Double Hydroxide: Electrochemical Applications". His research is focused particularly on the use of hybrid and biohybrid LDH materials in biosensor and biofuel cell. 

Abstract :

The present work introduces new biohybrid materials involving layered double hydroxides (LDH) and biomolecule such as enzyme to produce bioinorganic system. Lactate dehydrogenase (Lac Deh) has been chosen as a model enzyme, being immobilized onto MgAl and ZnAl LDH materials via direct ion-exchange (adsorption) and co-precipitation methods. The immobilization efficiency was largely dependent upon the immobilization methods. A comparative study shows that the co-precipitation method favors the immobilization of great and tunable amount of enzyme. The structural behavior, chemical bonding composition and morphology of the resulting biohybrids were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The free and immobilized enzyme activity and kinetic parameters were also reported using UV-Visible spectroscopy. However, the modified LDH materials showed a decrease in crystallinity as compared to the unmodified LDH. The change in activity of the immobilized lactate dehydrogenase was considered to be due, to the reduced accessibility of substrate molecules to the active sites of the enzyme and the partial conformational change of the Lac Deh molecules as a result of the immobilization way. Finally, it was proven that there is a correlation between structure/microstructure and enzyme activity dependent on the immobilization process.

Keywords: Bioinorganic system, Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH), Lactate Dehydrogenase (Lac Deh), Enzyme immobilization, Catalytic activity.

Sinyoung Jeong

Seoul National University, Korea
Title: Fluorescence-raman dual-modal endomicroscopic system for real-time in vivo multiplexed molecular diagnosis

Biography :

Sinyoung Jeong is a Ph.D. student at Department of Chemistry Education, Seoul National University, Koreaunder the supervision of Prof. Dae Hong Jeong. He is mainlystudyingRaman spectroscopy forbio-application. His current research is focusedon developing Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering-based in vivo andin vitromulti-modal bio-imaging system for multiplexed molecular diagnosisinvolving endoscopy and microscopy, in conjugation with multifunctional optical nanomaterialshaving specific targeting moiety.He has published 15 first-authored and co-authored peer-reviewed papers in the major journals including Advanced Functional Materials, Scientific Reports,and ACS Applied Materials. He received B.S. (2010) and M.S. (2012) from Department of Chemistry Education at Seoul National University. 

Abstract :

Endoscopic imaging techniques have been extensively used to diagnose and treat cancerssuch asesophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancersowing to their high accessibility to proximal surface of suspicious lesion with minimal invasive or non-invasive manner. However, by solely using a conventional white-light endoscopy, it is difficult to diagnose a specific cancer at an early stage and to differentiate stage of cancer, because it can only distinguish visually observable morphological changes. Thus, to accurately diagnose a specific cancer based on the pathological condition of suspiciouslesion at the molecular level, biopsy and histopathological examination of suspicious lesion are essentially required.

Recently, to improve the accuracy and reliability of endoscopic diagnosis by using the histopathological molecular information of suspicious lesion, additional functionalities such as fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy involving exogenous targeting agents have been combinedwith conventional endoscopy. The fluorescence endoscopic imaging techniques with fluorescently labeled molecular contrast agents can visualize a biotarget associated with a specific cancer that enhance differentiation between tumor and adjacent benign tissues. The Raman endoscopic techniques using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoprobe as tumor targeting agents can simultaneously detect the multiple molecular biotargets with high sensitivity to identify the pathological condition of suspicious lesion for molecular diagnosis because of its narrow spectral band width (<1 nm) and single excitation source for multiple analytes.

Here, we developed a real-time fluorescence-Raman endomicroscopic system (FRES) with fluorescence-SERS active nanoprobes (F-SERS dots) having a targeting ligand with the following strategies for in vivo endoscopic molecular diagnostics: simultaneous detection of dual modalities (fluorescence and SERS signals) for real-time fluorescence molecular imaging of bio-targets and identification of multiple bio-targets by SERS spectra, and direct topical administration of F-SERS dots as tumor-targeting agents via direct spraying method to reduce the potential toxicity of nanoprobes caused by accumulating in the internal organs. To demonstrate the feasibility of the FRES as an in vivo endoscopic molecular diagnostic tool, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the breast cancer orthotopic xenograft tumor models in mice were successfully identified in a multiplexed way. Based on these results, we can believe that the FRES has asignificant potential as a clinical molecular diagnostic tool which enable us to characterize the tumor receptors in real-time at the molecular level during the routine endoscopic procedures.

 

Figure 1. Schematic illustration of real-time multiplexed imaging using the fluorescence-Raman endoscopic system (FRES). (a) The real-time fluorescence imaging tracks the locations of the probe-targeted areas, and a concurrent SERS spectral analysis identifies the species of targets. (b) Illustration of the in vivo multiplexed molecular diagnosis procedure.

Zhen Yu

California State Polytechnic University, USA
Title: Photocatalysis of Rhodamine B in water using nanotechnology

Biography :

Abstract :

There are several techniques currently used for water organic contaminants removal, including Activated Carbon Adsorption, Chlorination, UV Photolysis, Ozonation, and Ferrate Oxidation. Although these techniques are useful in treating contaminated water, they have limitations in terms of removal completion, efficiency, rates, and operational costs. In addition, the methods for identification and quantification of both organic contaminants and the reaction products in water treatment are not well developed. We developed the method of combining the nanotechnology and the tandem water contaminants detection apparatus, namely Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-Attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and UV/Vis spectroscopy. This will allow efficient, low cost removal of organic contaminants from water, with the removal process being constantly monitored for both contaminants and products. Our research consists of coating nanoparticles (graphite oxide) along with nano-inorganic materials (CdS) on a surface for photocatalysis of water contaminants under radiation of visible light. Rhodamine B has been used as a water contaminant surrogate to test our nano-technical treatment methods. Our preliminary results indicate that Rhodamine B in water undergoes photocatalysis with visible light in the presence of nano materials accordingly to the observation that the color of the sample solution was changed from red to green-yellow after the photocatalysis. The degradation rate and products of Rhodamine B photocatalysis in water will be discussed.

Seong-Geun Oh

Hanyang University, Republic of Korea
Title:

Surface modification of silica nanoparticles using phenyl trimethoxysilane and their dispersion stability in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone

Biography :

Professor Seong-Geun Oh got BS from Hanyang University, MS from KAIST and Ph.D from University of Florida. He has taught at Chemical Engineering Department, Hanyang University since 1997. His main research area is the preparation of nanomaterials in surfactant solution and their applications for solar cell, electronics and cosmetics.

Abstract :

Surface modified silica nanoparticles were prepared through a two-step sol-gel process. The introduction of phenyl group onto the surface of silica nanoparticles could be processed by varying the amounts of NH4OH and phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMS) and molar ratio of H2O/Si during the second step. Under the optimized condition, thesurface properties of silica nanoparticles were completely different before and after surface modification, assilanol groups being substituted by phenyl groups. The qualitative analysis of modified silica was conducted with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The degree of surface modification at the silica nanoparticles was examined based on the surface hydrophilic/hydrophobic moiety through the measurement of contact angle, surface charge by zeta-potential in aqueous solution and morphology by SEM. The mechanism ofsurface modification was inferred from a surface roughness. Finally when the silica was dispersed in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as organic solvent, the modified silica with high concentration (20%) was better in dispersion ability.

Nabila Haddadine

University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediene, Algeria
Title: Preparation of inverse opal crystals films based graphene oxide for photonic application

Biography :

Nabila Haddadine is a Professor of Macromolecular Chemistry at University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumedienne (USTHB). She received her B.S., M.S. and PhD degrees from the Faculty of Chemistry, USTHB in Algeria. She worked as visitor scholar in Herriot Watt University, Edinburgh U.K and works as a visitor Professor at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU), USA. Her research interests are on polymer sciences regarding nano-composites, hydrogel, drug delivery and therapy, synthesis and properties of nano-structured materials with photonic and dielectric properties, synthesis of nano-particles and theirs antimicrobial activities. Dr. N. Haddadine has been a member of the Editorial Advisory Boards of the Journal of Physical Chemistry, American Association for Science and Technology (AASCIT), Journal of Naonscience and Polymer International Journal as reviewer.

Abstract :

Inverse opal photonic crystals films combine interesting structural and optical properties. In this work (IOFs), were fabricated with graphene oxide nano-sheets as external matrices through cross linking of poly (methyl methacrylate) templates. First mono-dispersed PMMA colloidal crystals templates were prepared. Then a solution of precursor containing graphene oxide nano-sheets was dropped on the surface of the PMMA templates and heated in the oven at 37 C for 24 h. These samples were immersed in toluene to completely remove the PMMA opal template.  Finally thin films of GO photonic crystal with and inverse-opal structure were obtained. The resulting structures displayed strong photonic properties due to the high structural order that endow the films with photonic stop bands and structural colors, which are visible to the naked eye. These IOFs exhibited a rapid reversible changes in their structural colors and reflectance peaks like evidenced by optical analyses as a response to alcohol and organic solvent.

Keywords: Inverse opal, photonic crystals, templating, graphene oxide, PMMA nano-spheres.

Ging-Ho Hsiue

Chung Yuan University, Taiwan, ROC
Title: Synthesis and evaluation of the targeted binding of RGD-containing PEGylated-PEI/DNA polyplex micelles as radiotracers for a tumor-targeting imaging probe

Biography :

Professor Ging-Ho Hsiue received his B.S. in Chemistry from Nippon University, Japan, in 1963 and his M.Sc. in Polymer Chemistry from Tokyo University, Japan, in 1967. After completion of his Ph.D. in 1972 from Tohoku University, Japan, did a professor assignment at National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC from 1973-2009 in the Department of Chemical Enginerring. Then GH Hsiue promoted as a director of the Bioengineering Center (2000), director of the Biomedical Center (2007 - 2009), Dean (2000-2002) and Vice President (2000 -2001) in National Tsing Hua University. Also he won University Distinguished professor awards. After his retairedment from National Tsing Hua University, Ging-Ho Hsiue  started to work as emarite professor in Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli, Taiwan, ROC. His current research interests include polymer synthesis and physical property, shape-based self-assembly, biomedical materials, controlled drug delivery and optical polymeric materials. 

Abstract :

Receptor-mediated gene transfer is believed to be of enormous significance in the clinical translation as promising gene delivery technique. Plasmid DNA (pEGFP) and polycations produce polyplexes, which can be proficient probes for molecular imaging when accompanied with gamma emitter. Hence we have demonstrated the physico-biological characterization of a radiotracer for tumor imaging in a HeLa tumor-bearing mouse model. Polyplex micelles were formed with pEGFP and Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide-modified poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted polyethylenimine (E[c(RGDyK)]2-PEG-g-PEI) and labeled with 99mTc for in vivo study. The sizes and zeta potentials of the PEG-g-PEI/DNA polyplexes were 90-135 nm and 40-50 mV, respectively. The biophysical characterization of pEGFP in polyplexes was evaluated via various methods, including determination of the condensation efficiency of the polymers and the biodistribution, in vitro stability, in vivo application, and kinetics of the radiolabeled polyplexes. The polyplex of PEG-g-PEI/DNA fabricated with a PEG/PEI ratio of 10:1 and N/P=1, i.e., PP10/D, exhibited the lowest cytotoxicity and the highest transfection efficiency. The cyclic-RGD peptide-modified polyplex PEG-g-PEI/DNA (RPP10/D) had significantly higher binding affinity and transfection efficiency than the non-targeting PP10/D did. Through in vivo SPECT/CT images, it was determined that RPP10/D-99mTc presented higher uptake in the tumor than PP10/D-99mTc at all of the post-injection times studied. We found that the two tracers of radioactive complexes mainly accumulated in the liver, spleen and kidneys at 24 h after intravenous injection in female BALB/c nude mice bearing subcutaneous HeLa tumors. The accumulation of the site-specifically labeled RPP10/D-99mTc was lower in liver, kidney and spleen compared with non-targeting PP10/D-99mTc.